Sodium is a mineral that, along with chloride, forms part of table salt. Sodium is needed for the fluid balance of the body, regulates the transfer of impulses in muscle and nerve cells and plays an important role in controlling blood pressure.


Sodium is found in almost all foods and beverages. In some foods and beverages, sodium is naturally present. Sodium is an important component of table salt (sodium chloride). This is added to the diet during the manufacturing process, during preparation of the meal or at the table.



A shortage of sodium will generally not easily happen. However, if a shortage does occur, it's usually due to loss of sodium via sweat during prolonged effort. This causes symptoms of dehydration and may occur with mountaineers and athletes.


An excess of sodium puts extra strain on the kidneys and heart, so edema, kidney damage and high blood pressure can arise. Thus, too much sodium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. An excess of sodium can also lead to osteoporosis.