Hemorrhoids are swellings around the anus or in the lower part of the rectum, the last portion of the intestinal tract. External hemorrhoids are located under the skin of the anus and may become inflamed. Internal hemorrhoids are located in the rectum and may go slightly bleeding during bowel movement. Hemorrhoids are harmless, but many people are uncomfortable with it.


Hemorrhoids are caused by increased pressure in the veins of the anus or rectum. This pressure makes the blood vessels expand and bulge. The following factors may contribute to an increased pressure:

Hemorrhoids are not contagious.


Whether hemorrhoids cause symptoms or not, depends on the size and location of the hemorrhoids. The size of the hemorrhoids can range from a protrusion as small as a fingernail to one as big as a golf ball.
The most common signs and symptoms are:

Sometimes, hemorrhoids cause no symptoms at all.


The diagnosis of hemorrhoids can usually be based on the medical history, symptoms and physical examination. Upon physical examination, the doctor will perform a rectal examination. The doctor feels gently with a finger into the rectal canal to look for any defects. If necessary, additional internal inspection can take place in the form of a proctoscopy, colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy.


A high-fiber diet, adequate fluid intake, sufficient exercise and a healthy toilet behavior will reduce the symptoms within a few days and cause the swelling to disappear within a few weeks. If symptoms persist, hemorrhoid ointment or suppositories may help. When constipation symptoms last, the doctor may prescribe a drug to soften the stool.
For a painful thrombosed hemorrhoid, the doctor may relieve the pain by removing the clot. This is done by making a small cut in the hemorrhoid, under local anesthesia. In case of complications or persistent problems, there are other treatment options:


The prognosis of hemorrhoids is generally good, provided they are treated in time. In case of complications, such as infection, clot, suddenly severe pain around the anus, fever and repeated blood in the stool, immediate contact with the doctor is required.


Constipation and increased pressure on the anus should be prevented: