Diseases

Dyslexia

Neurological disease, Developmental disorder

Dyslexia is a developmental disorder, in which reading, spelling and/or writing develops incomplete or very difficult. Letters are reversed and words are misspelled or read incorrectly. Simple calculations are time-consuming and mistakes are made. The performance lags behind the age, education level and intelligence of the child.


Cause

In a person with dyslexia, processing of the letter-sound link in the brains is disrupted. How this exactly works is not yet known. Dyslexia is congenital and in about half of the cases hereditary. The only exception is that dyslexia can be caused by brain damage due to an accident or a cerebral infarction.


Symptoms

Dyslexia can cause problems with reading, spelling and arithmetics. Therefore, the condition usually emerges in the elementary school. There are almost always automation problems. This often causes problems in areas other than learning to read and spell, such as the development of fine motor skills and orientation in the environment and the automation of other activities. Reading often takes so much effort that the material cannot simultaneously be stored in memory. Learning of rows is difficult, as is understanding of a text or a complicated sum. Learning achievements lag behind those of other children. In children, this causes great emotional stress and possibly the development of emotional or behavioral problems. Early identification and diagnosis is important.


Diagnosis

After identifying the problems posed by the teacher, the diagnosis should be made by a specialist in this field and a dyslexia certificate will be issued. Specialists who do the examination are the remedial educationalist, psychologist and/or neuro speech therapist.


Treatment

Dyslexia cannot be cured. But training is, depending on the severity of the dyslexia, in many cases possible. Many children can learn to compensate for their problems and get along in school. Sometimes, minor adjustments are necessary, such as additional time for a test. Remedial teaching might be necessary. Anyway, it doesn’t mean that a child with dyslexia has to follow special education.

Treatment of dyslexia includes mainly training. By much practicing under expert supervision and with proper tools (and tricks), both reading and spelling skills can improve significantly. The training can be provided by a remedial teacher, a remedial educationalist or a speech therapist who specializes in dyslexia treatment.


Prognosis

Dyslexia is a learning problem that will persist throughout life. However, with the help of exercises and tips, children may have fewer problems with their condition. Using a computer and accepting having dyslexia, children can function normally in society, despite their disability.


Considerations


Facts


Synonyms

Reading Disorder, Alexia


See also

Cerebral Infarction

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