A puncture is an examination, in wich blood, fluid or tissue is taken out of the body with the aid of a hollow needle. This material is then examined by the pathologist under the microscope for any defects in cells or tissues.
A puncture is, among other things, carried out in order to investigate whether the patient has an infection, tumor or metastases.
For a puncture, the doctor uses a syringe with a thin, hollow needle. With special manipulation, the syringe is pulled vacuum, so the fluid can be sucked up. It’s about the single cells that are found in the fluid. The taken material is spread on a microscope slide and dried in the air, so that the fluid evaporates and the cells remain.
There are various types of punctures, such as: ascites puncture (abdomen), bone marrow puncture, joint puncture, lumbar puncture or spinal tap (cerebrospinal fluid), pleural puncture or thoracentesis (lungs), venipuncture (vein) and amniocentesis (uterus).
By using a thin needle, a puncture is usually hardly taxing or painful for the patient. Therefore, the puncture site is generally not anesthetized. There is usually only a small amount of material taken. This is tested for defects. Carrying out a puncture takes about 15 minutes. The result of the puncture is available after two to five working days. For urgent requests, the result can be quickly available.